Diffie, Hellman 1976 Cryptography is an interesting field where preserving security is paramount. Previously, it appeared that encryption was a luxury for a select few. Distribution of encrypted messages need to be universal as mentioned by Diffie and Hellman. The key may be shorter and easier to hide. A digital signature is also important in that we can distribute a message or document such that the recipient is confident that no impersonation of the sender is occurring.
Different schools of thought Be clever with things we want to do, Ethernet chip. Jim Clark used homogeneous coordinates to build the pipeline for geometric coordinates. Role of federal funding in massive innovations, they all run on railroad tracks. A mowdown is a way for people to use ordinary phone labs for packet networking experiments. McCarthy 1955 The artificial intelligence at Dartmouth, who formed the basis of deciding how computers can be programmed to use a language.
Kleene, “Representation of Nerve Nets…” In this paper, Kleene writes about how an organism or robot is analogized to human beings by way of certain stimuli and actions. Kleene references much of the work from McCulloch and Pitts, who in their fundamental paper on logical analysis of nervous activity formulate assumptions about how to interpret the neurophysiology of certain human species. These abstractions are effective in the way they identify an “all-or-nothing” firing.
Leibniz Paper Leibniz is known for showing a transcendental number is related to a simple infinite series. His development of calculus with Leibniz is known as the calculus of infinitesimals. Science is necessary for true happiness, a certain Method is not known to everybody. Experiments in physics are known to be rather difficult and expensive, metaphysics are impossible. The language and love of god inspires Leibniz to continue to seek understanding in his efforts, to free up the human mind and make possible the frontiers of greater discovery.
Bush Paper Vannevar Bush built a differential analyzer for solving differential equations. Shannon was hired as a research assistant. Clearly, some greatness was in the mix. It’s nice to see that Bush first publicized this device in a 1945 Atlantic article where he called it a memex. Really goes to show the legitimacy and quality of the Atlantic, haha. HG Wells also had a similar inspiration by writing that there is no practical obstacle that has led to the creation of an efficient index to all of human knowledge, ideas and achievements, for the memory of all mankind.
Gefter Context Paper Pitts grew up in a rather poor area with an abusive father. McCulloch meanwhile grew up in a well-to-do family with ample resources and a well-rounded education. They are the Prince and the Pauper. Their share connection is the early exposure to Russell’s Principia Mathematica, which proved to have formidable effect on their conception of neuroscience using the language of logic. In great discoveries, we often see a pairing of individual inventors.
Shannon 1938 Shannon was inspired by Boole. His work augments the bit calculation and logical systematization used by Boole. Any circuit is represented by a set of equations, the terms of the equations corresponding to the various relays and switches in the circuit. It’s interesting to note, in Shannon’s case, we are looking specifically at formalizing the notation of circuits using mathematics. This is a time where physics and electrical engineering were more developed.
Hilbert Paper David Hilbert, a German mathematician challenged colleagues with a list of 23 unsolved problems. The Russian mathematician Yuri Matiyasevich proved that problem 10 was unsolvable. This problem was whether a diophantine equation is solvable over the integers We must know. We shall know. History teaches the continuity of the development of science. Every age has its own problems so we must let these unsettled questions, as Professor Lewis argues.
John von Neumann had incredible breadth, one of the great thinkers of the 2oth century. Very gregarious and articulate. He studied at Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies. One place to store memory. Von Neumann knew about Turing. Turing’s paper influenced the way Neumann was thinking about the way to design a computer. He stayed at the institute. Pretty young, 54 or something, had cancer. Von Neumann, Herman Goldstein, Arthur Burks Paper Burke describes computers in a very similar manner in which doctors describes patients.