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Zhu, Justin

## Algorithms for Organic Chemistry (Midterm III)

Fri, Nov 30, 2018

Nucleophilicity and Hydrogen Donation The more nucleophilic the functional group, the less acidic the group, i.e. the less effective the group’s ability to donate a hydrogen, and the greater the ability of the group to accept the hydrogen. Additionally, the more basic the group. Example: Amide is more nucleophilic than any functional group with oxygen. Substituents Alkyl substiuents is implied when we refer to substituents as a whole (more carbons attached).

## Algorithms for Organic Chemistry (Midterm II)

Sun, Nov 4, 2018

Aromaticity Cyclic elements that all have $sp^2$ hybridization. For electronegative elements with valence shell greater than carbon, if they are double bonded already we don’t count their lone pairs into the pi-system. However, if they are not double-bonded, we do count their lone pairs (2 electrons) into the pi-system. Be familiar with drawing the MO diagrams. Start with 0 nodes, all bonding. Go up in energy and symmetrically divide up the orbitals into nodes until we have n-1 nodes, where n is the number of elements in our pi system.