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Zhu, Justin
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Nucleophilicity and Hydrogen Donation The more nucleophilic the functional group, the less acidic the group, i.e. the less effective the group’s ability to donate a hydrogen, and the greater the ability of the group to accept the hydrogen. Additionally, the more basic the group. Example: Amide is more nucleophilic than any functional group with oxygen. Substituents Alkyl substiuents is implied when we refer to substituents as a whole (more carbons attached).

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Aromaticity Cyclic elements that all have $sp^2$ hybridization. For electronegative elements with valence shell greater than carbon, if they are double bonded already we don’t count their lone pairs into the pi-system. However, if they are not double-bonded, we do count their lone pairs (2 electrons) into the pi-system. Be familiar with drawing the MO diagrams. Start with 0 nodes, all bonding. Go up in energy and symmetrically divide up the orbitals into nodes until we have n-1 nodes, where n is the number of elements in our pi system.